eInvoicing in the European Union: the GOV2EU project as a contribution to the Digital Single Market.


Áreas de investigación

The Instituto universitario de automática e informática industrial (ai2) at the Universitat Politècnica de Valencia (UPV) is participating in the GOV2EU project (Action 2016-EU-IA-0096) funded by the European Commission. The objective of this project is to integrate the electronic invoicing tools in the ERP systems of 21 end users from the European health sector, with the collaboration of EDICOM as technology provider. This project has been implemented in the context of the e-Invoicing Directive 2014/55 / ​​EU that affects European public institutions.

 The adoption of electronic invoicing within the European Union generates significant economic benefits and a clear increase in the competitiveness of European companies. With the support of European legislation, the acceptance of electronic invoices by the public administration will clearly facilitate commercial transactions between the public sector and the private sector. Replacing the physical form on paper with a digital form allows the invoice to be handled more efficiently. This provides significant savings in printing, postage, routing and archiving within the office. This provides significant savings in human resources and significantly reduces errors in data entry.

The GOV2EU Action is located in Spain, Italy, France, Portugal, Belgium, Slovakia and Hungary. In this publication, we will present a brief summary of the results obtained by the Polytechnic University during the legal analysis of the e-Invoicing context in each country involved in the project.


A necessary impulse

Law 25/2013 regulates the electronic invoice in Spain. This law establishes the obligation to use electronic invoices in all commercial transactions involving a Spanish public institution. This means that, suppliers of public institutions are obliged to use invoices in electronic format, adjusting to the structured format of electronic invoicing Facturae version 3.2.x with electronic signature XAdES.

Based on Directive 2014/55 / ​​EU, the Spanish central administration developed the adaptation of the Spanish standard of electronic invoicing to the European standard. This development will be integrated into FACe, being the main platform for the exchange and validation of electronic invoices in Spain.

It is expected that now, given that the vast majority of procedures in the Spanish public administration is electronic by definition thanks to Law 39/2015, there is a necessary boost to the use of electronic invoicing at European level, given the importance of the State as a customer that receives invoices for its specific weight and capillarity.


Advanced process

Italy is one of the countries in the European Union where the implementation of electronic invoicing is more advanced.From a legislative point of view, in Italy, the legislative decree number 148 of 27 December 2018 implements the Directive (EU) 2014/55 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 April 2014 on electronic invoicing in public procurement. Nevertheless, it must be said that electronic invoicing is mandatory for ministries, tax agencies and national security agencies since 2014 and since 2015 for all public entities. Italy is taking a step further in mandating eInvoicing also at the B2B and B2C levels. From the first of January 2019 B2B e-invoicing has become mandatory for all companies.

From a technical point of view, the eInvoicing system of Italy (Sistema di Interscambio) works with a single exchange hub managed by the Revenue Agency and supported by an IT provider (Sogei) owned by the Ministry of Economy and Finance. The eletronic invoice has to be completed in a specific digitally signed ML 1.2 format.

As an incentive for companies to adopt the standard, Italian government has offered multiple tax benefits to companies.


In France there is the Ordinance No. 2014-697 of 26 June 2014 on the development of electronic invoicing, and the “PACTE” (Action Plan for Business Growth and Transformation), making the basic legal environment for electronic invoicing development. Directive 2014/55/EU will be transposed as part of the draft law for the Business Growth and Transformation (PACTE) which is currently being examined by Parliament and should be adopted in the first quarter of 2019.

B2G eInvoicing will be mandatory in France gradually from 2017 until 2020 (the date of enforcement of the law for the suppliers varies according to the company size).  E-Invoicing is actually mandatory for Economic operators (Submitting) and Central authorities, Regional authorities & Local authorities (Receiving and processing).


In Portugal there is the Public Procurement Code (Código dos Contratos Públicos), currently being revised to transpose the Directive 2014/55/EU. Since 1 January 2004, with the entry into force of Decreto-Lei n° 256/2003 of 21 October 2003, contracting authorities can receive and process electronic invoices (eInvoices). The Public Procurement Code (Código dos Contratos Públicos) regulates the use of eInvoices in public procurement. A public consultation took place until 10 October 2016 to update this legal instrument to, among other objectives, transpose the Directive 2014/55/EU. The article 299°- B mandates that all contracting authorities must only receive eInvoices compliant to the European standard on electronic invoicing.


Nowadays, Belgium is in the process to implement the Directive 2014/55/EU. Since 2013 the eInvoicing has equal footing than paper invoicing, but with the willingness of the receivers to process it. It was a consequence of the federal law modifying the VAT code of 17.12.2012. This law does not mandate the use of eInvoices in B2G procurement.

The federal government makes the use of eInvoices in B2G procurement mandatory since 1 January 2018 for all federal entities, for contracts above €135k. The regional government of Flanders acted before in 2016 making it mandatory by the 1 of January 2017 for all its regional entities.

The main entity of the Government of the Brussels Region now accepts eInvoices, but does not make it mandatory yet. The other regional governments in Belgium will follow and soon enable the receiving and processing of eInvoices.


Currently there is no public eInvoicing platform in Slovakia. However, it is planned to start a public procurement process in the short term for the development of a complete eInvoicing solution that allows the full transposition of the Directive that regulates this electronic invoicing.

Regarding legislation, before the end of 2018, a draft regulating electronic invoicing was prepared in Slovakia. This draft allows to specify the requirements of electronic invoices, as well as the procedure to follow for eInvoicing, and the creation of a platform to centralize eInvoicing services. They are currently in a review period, in which external comments are considered to adjust the legislation as best as possible. It is expected that Slovakia will carry out the final approval of the law in the summer of 2019, thus guaranteeing the provisions of article 11 (1) of Directive 2014/55 / EU.


Until mid-2018, in Hungary there was no public platform for electronic invoicing, because there was not a specific legislation on electronic invoicing.

Since July 1, 2018, there is a real-time reporting system for the VAT  data of invoices issued, called RTIR (Real Time Invoice Reporting),  whose use is mandatory for all companies registered in the VAT of the  country (both residents and foreigners), and for all invoices that  exceed € 320 VAT. The real-time issuance of invoices is made directly between the companies and the NTCA (National Tax and Custom Administration). The obligatory nature of this regulation, that it tries to avoid tax fraud, is highlighted by the fine that implies non-compliance, amounting to € 1600 per invoice. In this way, Hungary is adapting to Directive 2014/55 / EU.

eID@Cloud: Integrating the eIdentification in European cloud platforms according to the eIDAS Regulation


Áreas de investigación

Agreement number: INEA/CEF/ICT/A2016/1271635
Action No: 2016-EU-IA-0064
Start date: 01/05/2017. Duration: 18 months

The “Institute of Industrial Control Systems and Computing (ai2) from Universitat Politécnica de València” is participating in the eID@Cloud Project.

eID@Cloud is a research Project funded by Connecting Europe Facility Programme with the aim of
integrating the eID system in the cloud platforms of 5 service providers (EDICOM, Officient, Aksesspunkt, eConnect and Unimaze) and connecting the to 5 different eIDAS nodes (Spain, Norway, Denmark, Netherlands and Iceland) to allow entities from one country to access service in another with their local indentification.

Main objectives of eID@Cloud are:

  • To promote the uptake and use of the eID DSI.
  • To facilitate access to the services provided by the 5 cloud platforms to all EU citizens and businesses using their national eID.
  • To facilitate EU citizens and businesses cross-border mobility using their national eID.
  • To support the Digital Single Market.

The consortium includes the following 8 partners: University Carlos III of Madrid (Coordinator), EDICOM, Officient, Aksesspunkt Norge, eConnect, LMT group, Unimaze, and Universidad Politecnica de Valencia. From those partners, 5 are private entities of the eID@Cloud consortium specialized in Integration Brokerage (EDICOM, Officient, Aksesspunkt Norge, eConnect and Unimaze). They will introduce the AS4 in their solutions and develop their SMP according to the EU Core Service Platform.
This project will support several generic eDelivery and eCommerce services of European companies, providing the eID authentication to the cross-border communication and the validation and integration of the information exchanged in the contexts B2B, B2C and B2G. The 5 cloud platforms will be able to request, receive and process the new set of identification data received from the eIDAS node under the eIDAS Regulation.

Full information about the project can be seen at the project web page:

MADE: Multiple Access to eDElivery


Áreas de investigación

Agreement number: INEA/CEF/ICT/A2016/1278042
Action No: 2016-EU-IA-0063
Start date: 01/01/2017. Duration: 24 months

The “Institute of Industrial Control Systems and Computing (ai2) from Universitat Politécnica de València” is participating in the MADE Project.

MADE is a research Project funded by Connecting Europe facility Programme with the aim of promoting the use of the eDelivery DSI (Digital Service Infrastructure) amongst both private and public entities by implementing six new Access Points, integrating the AS4 protocol, and their respective Service Metadata Publishers (SMP).

Main objectives of MADE are:

  • To make their electronic registered delivery services ‘qualified’, in compliance with the requirements set in the eIDAS Regulation (Regulation EU 910/2014 on electronic identification and trust services).
  • To promote the use of the eDelivery DSI (Digital Service Infrastructure) amongst both private and public entities.
  • Implementing six new AS4 Access Points and SMP in different EU countries and show interoperability.

The consortium includes the following 9 partners: University Carlos III of Madrid (Coordinator), EDICOM, BIZbrains, Officient, Aksesspunkt Norge, eConnect, LMT group, Unimaze, and Universidad Politécnica de València. From those partners, 6 are private entities of the MADE consortium specialized in Integration Brokerage (EDICOM, BIZbrains, Officient, Aksesspunkt Norge, eConnect and Unimaze). They will introduce the AS4 in their solutions and develop their SMP according to the EU Core Service Platform.

This will allow the thousands of European companies that are already using the eDelivery services provided by the members of the consortium to have access to the cross-border exchange of electronic documents according to the technical specification of the EU core service platform and based on the e-SENS AS4 Profile.

Full information about the project can be seen at the project web page:

System to reconstruct grape clusters in 3D and assess their quality


Áreas de investigación

System to reconstruct grape clusters in 3D and assess their quality

In the project “Assessment of grape cluster yield components based on 3D descriptors using stereo vision” our researchers have developed software to help reconstruct grape clusters with three-dimensional computer vision techniques. The system helps to automatically assess different parameters that define the quality of the wine grape during harvest time.

During the work, the researchers of the Instituto ai2 collaborated with the Research Centre of Vine and Wine related Sciences of the University of La Rioja, the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC) and the Government of La Rioja. The results of this work were released last September in the journal Food Control.

Antonio José Sánchez Salmerón, researcher at the Instituto ai2 of the UPV, explains that, today, grape classification is based on an inspection by a panel of experts, that award it score depending on a series of parameters that determine its quality. Moreover, different tests are performed in the laboratory in order to estimate the quantity of sugar, the pH, the total acidity and the phenolic quality.

Among the factors that define the quality of a wine, one of the most important is the quality of the grape as the raw material, but this concept is difficult to assess, due to problems such as subjective parameters, the short period of time available in the field to do the analysis during harvest time, the lack of measuring instruments and their high price, as well as the mixing of good quality and bad quality grape in the trucks. The introduction of this 3D grape reconstruction system helps assess different quality parameters for a wine grape cluster avoiding these problems. One of these parameters is the average size of the grape, which is a very important factor as it establishes the ratio between the quantity of skin and pulp”, explains the researcher.

Increasing the objectivity and automating the grape quality monitoring tasks would be a technological breakthrough with regard to the traditional evaluation system of the grape, based on the knowledge of an expert, and it would have a great impact on the wine industry”, adds Sánchez.


E. Ivorra, A.J. Sánchez, J.G. Camarasa, M.P. Diago, J. Tardaguila. Assessment of grape cluster yield components based on 3D descriptors using stereo vision. Food Control. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodcont.2014.09.004

Contact: Antonio José Sánchez Salmerón

A clinical trial, pioneered in Spain, studies the efficiency of an artificial pancreas


Áreas de investigación

A clinical trial, pioneered in Spain, studies the efficiency of an artificial pancreas

The Instituto ai2 of the Universitat Politècnica de València, the Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria (INCLIVA) of the Hospital Clínico Universitario de Valencia, the Hospital Clínic de Barcelona and the Polytechnic School of the Universitat de Girona (UdG) are developing a clinical trial being pioneered in Spain, in order to study the efficiency of an artificial pancreas, one of the latest advances in diabetes technology.

The artificial pancreas is a device that automates insulin delivery from real-time measurements of glucose by means of a mathematical control algorithm. The artificial pancreas aims at achieving glycaemic objectives for any patient at any time by interconnecting current insulin pumps and continuous glucose monitors, already in use by type 1 diabetes patients.

Research on diabetes technology dates back to 2004, when researchers at the Instituto Universitario de Automática e Informática Industrial of the UPV (Jorge Bondia) and at the Institute of Informatics and Applications of the Universitat de Girona (Josep Vehí) decided to search for solutions to one of the biggest problems for diabetes patients; determining the quantity of insulin necessary at any given time.

Currently, according to Jorge Bondia, “the patient undergoes an intensive insulin therapy, either with multiple daily injections or with continuous infusion with insulin pumps. The intensive insulin therapy can be very effective, but it causes an increase in hypoglycaemic episodes if insulin doses are overestimated. Severe hypoglycemia can lead to diabetic comma and even death”. Glycaemia monitoring is a basic element in the treatment and control of diabetic patients.

According to Dr. Ampudia-Blasco, from the Endocrinology Department of the Hospital Clínico Universitario, “Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease which requires the administration of insulin for life. Today, for those patients who do not achieve an optimum glycaemc control with the administration of multiple insulin injections, the use of insulin pumps or systems of continuous subcutaneous infusion of insulin (CSII) can be an alternative. The research done for the last few years has proven that, besides these CSII systems, the joint use of an insulin pump and a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGM) can be useful for selected patients in order to improve the control of the glycaemia levels”.

However, the existing systems do not automatically make decisions, and they always require that the patient interprets the glucose number and decides what to do at any given time with respect to the dose of insulin they have to administer.

Recently, with the aim of improving the control of this disease, the T1DM patient conditions and their quality of life, different initiatives to automate the glucose monitoring and the insulin dosage have started. The closed-loop system, commonly known as artificial pancreas (AP), is a system that incorporates a smart control algorithm (controller), that interprets the results about the glucose provided every few minutes by a glucose sensor and decides the quantity of insulin which must be automatically administered at any time. Along this time, research on mathematical modelling of diabetes pathophysiology, glucose prediction under variability, insulin pump therapy optimization, calibration algorithms for continuous glucose monitors and algorithms for the artificial pancreas has been conducted.

In this context, one of the main problems these PA systems have to face is the control of the glucose numbers after meals, as they must avoid an excessive infusion of insulin, which can cause hypoglycaemia. Besides this, the PA must regulate the infusion of insulin during the night, where different prototypes have already proven its efficiency.

This trial intends to test the efficiency of an automatic controller with an original design for the adjustment of glucose levels after meals focusing on the analysis of how much variability the closed-loop system is able to compensate as compared to traditional insulin pump therapy. The controller interprets the glucose results provided by a glucose sensor and decides, every 15 minutes, the quantity of insulin that must be administered automatically. “By controlling the glucose levels in the blood in a such effective way, we could reduce the health problems related to persistent hypoglycaemia,” says the Dr. Ampudia-Blasco.

20 patients with type 1 diabetes are taking part in the study with an CSII treatment: ten from the Hospital Clínico Universitario de Valencia and ten from the Hospital Clinic de Barcelona.

According to the Dr. Juan F. Ascaso, Head of the Endocrinology and Nutrition Department of the Hospital Clínico Universitario de Valencia, “the artificial pancreas should give the patients autonomy and safety, allowing them to live with the disease without obsession. Besides that, it must avoid the complications caused when glucose levels fall. It consists of an approach to custom-designed treatments for each patient which reduce the problems caused by the treatments and costs“.

According to the General Manager of the INCLIVA, Dr. Rafael Carmena, “this research brings a message of hope to the diabetic patients. The development of an artificial pancreas systems can improve, in the near future, the control of type 1 diabetes, the patients’ conditions and their quality of life. When they have been perfected, they will remove the necessity of manually injecting insulin and they will guarantee the administration of exact doses every time”.

About Diabetes

Diabetes is increasing the burden of disease all over the world, particularly in developing countries. Causes are complex, but they are mostly related to a quick increase in weight, obesity and physical inactivity. The WHO expects diabetes to become the seventh leading cause of death worldwide in 2030 and calculates that the deaths from diabetes will increase by more than 50% in the next 10 years. Today, in the world, there are more than 347 million people with diabetes, among which approximately 10% suffer from type 1 diabetes..


This trial is lead by Dr. F. Javier Ampudia-Blasco, from the Endocrinology Department of the Hospital Clínico Universitario (Department Head: Dr. Juan Ascaso), in collaboration with the Dr. Paolo Rossetti, at the Hospital Fransesc de Borja in Gandia and researcher at the INCLIVA. Two engineers are also taking part as the main co-researchers, Jorge Bondia, from the Instituto Universitario de Automática e Informática Industrial of the UPV, and Josep Vehí, from the UdG, as well as Dr. Ignacio Conget, Dr. Marga Giménez and Dr. Carmen Quirós, from the Hospital Clínic de Barcelona. The study is part of the project CLOSEDLOOP4MEAL, funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness, and coordinated by Dr. Jorge Bondia.

Contact: Jorge Bondia

Further information about the project:

About MEDERI Living Lab

DREAMS: Distributed Real-time Architecture for Mixed Criticality Systems. Avionics and Windpower.


Áreas de investigación

DREAMS – Distributed Real-time Architecture for Mixed Criticality Systems

In many domains such as avionics, industrial control or healthcare there is an increasing trend for mixed-criticality systems, where multiple functions with different importance and certification assurance levels are integrated using a shared computing platform. The foundations for this integration are mechanisms for temporal and spatial partitioning, although key technological challenges are yet unsolved including the combination of software virtualization and hardware segregation and the extension of partitioning mechanisms to jointly address significant extra functional requirements (e.g., time, energy and power budgets, reliability, safety, security, etc.).

The objective of DREAMS is to develop a cross-domain architecture and design tools for networked complex systems where application subsystems of different criticality, executing on networked multi-core chips, are supported. DREAMS will deliver architectural concepts, meta-models, virtualization technologies, model-driven development methods, tools, adaptation strategies and validation, verification and certification methods for the seamless integration of mixed-criticality to establish security, safety, real-time performance as well as data, energy and system integrity.

The ambitious goals of the project are supported by 16 project partners distributed across six European countries. The project partners include major European companies encompassing large enterprises (Alstom, STMicroelectronics, Thales, TÜV Rheinland) and SMEs (FENTISS, RealTime-at-Work, TTTech, Virtual Open Systems,). Furthermore leading universities and research institutes (FORTISS, IKERLAN, ONERA, Universitat Politècnica de València, SINTEF, Technological Educational Institute of Crete, Technical University of Kaiserslautern and University of Siegen) contribute to DREAMS.

DREAMS works on three industrial cases related to avionics, windpower and healthcare. The Instituto ai2 of the Universitat Politècnica de València, together with the company Fentiss, works on avionics and windpower projects.

The four-years DREAMS project (2013-2017) is coordinated by University of Siegen and is one of three projects funded by the European Commission in the area of mixed-criticality systems from the FP7 ICT call 10. The EC financial contribution amounts to 11 million euros.

Contact: Alfons Crespo Lorente

Further information:

NEURO-TAR: application for real-time knowledge of the evolution of a brain injury


Áreas de investigación

An application provides real-time knowledge of the evolution of a brain injury

People with brain injuries can benefit from a new project that integrates cutting edge technology in the rehabilitation of their motor impairments, in swimming pools and on dry land, and provides the specialist with real-time values and measurements on the patient’s progress. The project ‘NEURO-TAR’ was developed by the Instituto Universitario de Automática e Informática Industrial (Instituto ai2) of the Universitat Politècnica de Valencia (UPV) and the company Inia Neural and is currently in the validation phase in over thirty patients with acquired brain injury.

Hermengildo Gil, researcher at the Instituto ai2, and Rafael Romero, from the company Inia Neural, highlight that this new system, financed with 268,000 euros from the Centre for the Development of Industrial Technology (CDTI), enables more efficient rehabilitation in both adults and children.

The software developed by the researchers at the Instituto ai2 of the UPV aims to change the traditional rehabilitation process that currently exists in the company for a new, innovative system. This system enables the development of a number of interactive games for rehabilitating patients with brain injuries while recording, in real time, a number of values and measurements on the patient’s progress, of interest to the specialists. The data is recorded by a software platform implemented within the project, and it provides the specialists with records of measurements of balance, gait or limb mobility as the patient undergoes rehabilitation, minimising the need to obtain measurements for evaluation outside of the activities. In addition, the software uses the recording of these measurements to provide feedback, so that they can be used to adapt the system to the evolution of each patient in each session, which will enable customised rehabilitation programmes to be drawn up.

The technological treatment can be applied in two different environments: in water and on dry land, and includes collaborative and competitive exercises for patients of different ages and in different stages of their rehabilitation process.

Rafael Romero highlights that, for the first time in Spain, experiments are under way with adult patients in water, a medium that reduces both spasticity (motor impairment of the nervous system in which some muscles are permanently contracted) and the risks. The exercises are projected onto a large exterior screen for the patient to do, using a play format and supported by the therapist at all times, and the successes and failures that the patient achieves during the therapy. According to Romero, one of the advantages of this new technology is that it enables objective measurement of the patient’s therapy and their evolution and progress “knowing exactly what level has been obtained in their potential autonomy“.


 Neuro-TAR (Technologies for Active Rehabilitation). Members: Albero Gil, Miguel; Gil Gómez, Hermenegildo; Gil Gómez, José Antonio; Juan Lizandra, María Carmen; Lozano Quilis, Jose Antonio.

Contact: Hermenegildo Gil






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